Turner’s Syndrome: Types, Symptoms, and Treatments
Turner’s syndrome is a health condition that is genetic and has no cure. Treatment can be had at homeo clinic in Hyderabad. It has effects on one’s bodily functions.
Turner syndrome happens to be a genetic condition related to the X chromosome. The total chromosome number in Turner syndrome tends to become 45 chromosomes instead of the normal 46 chromosomes. The female either partially or even completely misses an X chromosome. It is a genetic disorder in females and causes a partial or complete loss of one of the X chromosomes.
Effects of Turner Syndrome
- Retarded sexual development in females.
- Cardiac abnormalities
- Hearing impairment
- Vision loss, etc.
1. Monosomy of X:This is the cause for half of the Turner syndrome cases and entails the complete loss of one X chromosome. This ends up in abnormal cell division during gamete formation. Eggs or sperm do lack a sex chromosome. People with this type of Turner syndrome comprise all the cells lacking one X chromosome, i.e. they have 45 chromosomes in all the cells
2. Mosaicism: When the sex chromosome tends to get lost during mitosis after fertilization, i.e. during the development of the zygote, it does result in a few cells with 45 chromosomes (one X chromosome) and a few cells having normal 46 chromosomes (XX chromosomes). When the loss does occur early in the development, there are a large number of cells with 45 chromosomes and they do develop the symptoms of Turner syndrome. If the loss occurs late in the development, the number of aneuploid cells turns out to be less so the severity of the symptom is thus less. In a few cases of somatic mosaics, there is a presence of 45 X cells and a few cells with an extra X chromosome, i.e. 47 XXX. Girls are taller with this type of genetic constituent.
3. X Chromosome abnormalities: In about 20% of cases of Turner syndrome, two X chromosomes are present in the given cells but one X chromosome tends to be abnormal in structure. This can be on account of the presence of one circular-shaped chromosome with joined ends referred to as a ring chromosome. Sometimes, a single X chromosome has two long arms instead of one short and one long arm called a isochromosome. A single X chromosome might be missing in a few of the genetic materials due to deletion.
Turner’s Syndrome Symptoms
- Common facial features like drooping eyelids, narrow palate, small jaws, and low-set prominent earlobes.
- Growth is irregular, with no regular growth spurts, and also puberty is delayed.
- Short stature as compared to other females.
- Females can have normal intelligence and good reading as well as verbal skills but may have a few learning difficulties, e.g. difficulty in memorizing, difficulties in learning math as well as spatial concepts.
- They might find difficulty in non-verbal communication as well as understanding other’s emotions.
- Poorly developed breasts, delayed or no onset of the menstrual cycle as well as being infertile.
- Murmuring of the heart on account of narrowing aorta and also other abnormalities related to the heart, liver, and of course kidney too.
- Hypothyroidism and also hypertension is frequent Insufficient estrogen does lead to osteoporosis.
- Chronic middle ear infection leading to hearing loss.
Symptoms of Turner syndrome can be observed in the developing fetus also:
- Lymphedema is characterized by swelling due to excess fluid leaking into the body.
- Swelling or perhaps the thickness of the neck.
- Lower than normal weight.
Turner Syndrome Treatment
There happens to be no cure for Turner syndrome. Whatever treatment is carried out, it is for complications related to Turner syndrome like sexual development, hearing and also vision impairment, and infertility.
Preventive care helps keep conditions like heart complications and thyroid under check.
Hormone therapy is indeed useful for short stature, inducing sexual development as well as reducing the risk linked to it.
IVF can also aid a female with Turner syndrome who hopes for pregnancy. Learning difficulties can be dealt with proper training and educational support.
Types of Turner’s Syndrome
They happen to be two types of Turner syndrome: In classical Turner syndrome, an X chromosome happens to be completely missing. This affects about half of all people with TS. Mosaic Turner syndrome, mosaicism, or Turner mosaicism is where the abnormalities occur only in the X chromosome of some of the body’s cells.
It helps to visit the homeo clinic in Hyderabad for the required treatment.
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