Renal calculi or renal stones are commonly seen in men than women; ratio-3:1, seen between the age groups of 30-60years.

Factors:

1) Infection
2) Urinary stasis:-
a) Urinary tract obstruction
Eg:-hydronephrosis
b) Latered constituents of urine

Pathogenesis of stone formation:-

Urinary stone formation is a multifactorial complex process which are mainly depending upon the loss of physical chemistry. Which governs the crystallization of souluble salts in the acquious solution.the process of perspiration leading to crystaliztion of material stone constituents in urine depending upon their level of supersaturation in the urine.

Types of stones:-

 Calcium oxalate
 Calcium phosphate
 Urete stones
 Triple phosphate stones
 Cystine calculi
 Stuvite stones

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF RENAL CALCULI

• Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
• Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
• Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
• Pain on urination
• Pink, red or brown urine
• Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
• Nausea and vomiting
• Persistent need to urinate
• Urinating more often than usual
• Fever and chills if an infection is present
• Urinating small amounts

THE CONDITIONS WHICH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH STONE FORMATION

 Idiopathic hypercalcuria
 Hyper oxalauria
 Primary hyper parathyroidism
 Hyperurecemia and hyper urecosuria

INVESTIGATION:

 Urine examination
 Examination of haematuria
 A plain x-ray of the abdomen
 CT scan of KUB
 Chemical analysis
 Simple renal function test
 Cystoscopy

COMPLICATIONS:

Infections like pylonephritis, cystitis, periuretrities, stricture of ureters and anurea.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT :

 The cause has to be ruled out and prevention of reoccurrence.
 Ask the patient to drink plenty of water
 24 hrs urine output should be maintained at least 2.5-3.5lit
 Restriction of diet has to be advised esp in uric acid stones.

TOP BEST HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR RENAL CALCULI:

o Belladonna
o Beri Paris
o Nux vomica
o Lycopodium
o Cantharis
o Argentum nitricum
o Benzoic acid
o Hydrastis

Belladonna –

SUDDEN, EXCRUCIATING PAINS, ESPECIALLY OF THE RIGHT KIDNEY.

Unbearable pains but patient must lie still
< JAR, cough, sneeze,
urine-bloody or clots of bloody
Generals: Red, flushed face and cold hands and feet.
Pupils dilated

Berberis –

SHARP, STITCHNG OR SHOOTING PAINS mainly from the left kidney.
PAINS RADIATE IN DIFFERENT PLACES OR ALL THROUGH THE BODY.

Painful urges to urinate during the colic
<JAR <MOTION menses, especially the beginning of menses. Sitting stooping walking>being still, standing, splinting the painful side.

  • Radiating pains DOWN URETER, BLADDER, URETHRA, TESTES, THIGHS, legs, & calves
  • Urine: dark and with sediments
  • Bubbling sensation in region of kidney’s
  • Kidney colic from kidney stones
  • Burning soreness in kidney region
  • Dysuria, frequent urination
  • Urine with thick mucus and bright-red, turbid, yellow, mealy, sandy or slimy sediment

Nux Vomica –

KIDNEY COLIC WITH STRONG URGES FOR STOOL OR URINATION

<right side Lying motion walking anger overwork >warm applications lying on the back

  • Radiate to testes penis rectum with desire for stool
  • Generals: chilly and even with shivers during the attack nausea and vomiting
  • Mentals: RESTLESS AND UNUSUALLY IRRITABLE
  • Irritable bladder from spasmodic sphincter
  • Ineffectual urging and spasmodic
  • Kidney colic R
  • The irritable patient can’t bear noises odors or light. Angry and impatient

Lycopodium –

RIGHT-SIDED KIDNEY STONES with marked distension and aversion to tight clothing

<4-8 PM comes with chills >after urination

  • Urine -RED SEDIMENT
  • Pain in back before urination ceases after flow, slow in coming, must strain
  • Heavy red sediment
  • Urine scanty cries before urinating.
  • Kidney colic in the ureter to the bladder
  • Urine milky, hematuria
  • Urine burning hot

Cantharis –

kidney stones complicated by inflammation or infection. Severe, sharp or burning pains with urination. Tenesmus; feels that if he could just urinate a few more drops he would be relieved.

<URGING TO URINATE. DURING URINATION> squeezing the glans of the penis

  • Generals: frenzied feeling, cries out with the unbearable burning
  • Constant desire to urinate
  • Urine is passed drop by drop
  • Urine burning to scald with cutting pains and intolerable urging
  • Fearful tenesmus or dribbling
  • Kidney colic

Argentum niricum:

Pain in kidneys from the congestion of kidneys or passage of calculi. Dull aching in small of the back and over the bladder.

Urine dark contains blood or deposit of renal epithelium and uric acid: passed often and little at a time, in drops (Nephritic colic.)
Urine burns while passing and the urethra feels swollen. Face dark: dried-up look. Argentum nit. craves sweets and sugar, which disagree. Suffers from anticipation: hurry. Flatulent dyspepsia.

Benzoic acid:

Nephritic colic with offensive urine. Urine deep-red, of strong odor:-dark brown; smells cadaverous, putrid.

Urine alternately thick like pea-soup, then clear like water. But the patient feels better when urine is profuse, thick and offensive: suffers in joints-heart- when it is clear and scanty. Highly intensified urinous odor.

Hydrastis:

Dull aching in kidney region. Intense pain in left ureter. Frequent, scanty urination, with burning at the end of it. Thick, ropy, mucous sediment in urine.

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